Devotion for March – St Joseph

Devotion for March
St Joseph

The beloved Foster-Father and Guardian of Jesus and Protector of the Holy Family, is celebrated for this whole month and his Feast Day falls in the middle of it – 19 March – this year moved to the 20th as the 19th is Laetare Sunday, the Fourth Sunday of Lent.

Quamquam Pluries
On the Devotion to St Joseph
Pope Leo XIII

“On 10 March, [11 MARCH THIS YEAR], we begin the Novena to St Joseph, entrusting so many of our woes and cares to his holy and fatherly care and intercession.
His Patronages are numerous, as we know, one of them will fit our needs perfectly and if not, then we should all ask him to intercede on our behalf for our families and for a Happy and Holy Death.
On the 20th [FEAST normally 19th] we pray the Consecration to St Joseph.”

Patronages in Alphabetical Order:

  • of Accountants • Bursars • Cabinetmakers • Carpenters • Catholic Church • Cemetery Workers • Children • Civil Engineers • against Communism • Confectioners • Craftsmen • against Doubt and Hesitation • the Dying • Emigrants • Exiles • Expectant Mothers • Families • Fathers • Furniture Makers • Grave diggers • Happy Death • Holy Death • House Hunters • House Sellers • Immigrants • Joiners • Labourers • all the Legal Profession • Married Couples • Oblates of Saint Joseph • Orphans • Pioneers • Social Justice • Teachers • Travellers • the Unborn • Wheelwrights • Workers • Americas • Austria • Belgium • Bohemia • Canada • China • Croatian people • Korea • Mexico • New France • New World • Peru • Philippines • Vatican City • VietNam • Canadian Armed Forces • Papal States • 46 Diocese • 26 Cities,States and Regions.

Saint of the Day – 4 November – Saint Emeric of Hungary (c 1007-1031)

Saint of the Day – 4 November – Saint Emeric of Hungary (c 1007-1031) Confessor, Prince and Heir to the Hungarian Throne, Son of St Stephen, the first King of Hungary, Married but lived in continence with his wife, having vowed his virginity to God. Born in c 1007 in Veszprém, Hungary and died by being killed by a boar while hunting on 2 September 1031 in Hungary, aged 24. Patronages – Youth, Hungarian Americans. Also known as – Emerick, Emmerich, Emmericus, Henricus, Henry. Additional Memorial – 5 November the date of his Canonisation.

Emeric is believed to have been the second son of Saint Stephen I. Named after his maternal Uncle St Henry II, the Holy Roman Emperor, he was the only one of Stephen’s sons who reached adulthood.

Emeric was educated in a strict and ascetic spirit by the Benedictine Monk from Venice, St Gerard Sagredo (980-1046), from the age of 15 to 23. He was intended to be the next Monarch of Hungary and his father wrote his Admonitions to prepare him for this task – here:

St Stephen here: and St Gerard here:

Emeric married a Byzantine Princess but according to a biography written between 1109 and 1116, he lived during marriage in perfect chastity, collaborating with his father King Stephen in the conversion of his subjects.

The succession plans of Emeric’s father could never be fulfilled, for on 2 September 1031, at age 24, Emeric was killed by a boar while hunting. It is believed that this happened in Hegyközszentimre (presently Sântimreu, Romania). He was buried in the Székesfehérvár Basilica. Several wondrous healings and conversions happened at his grave. On 5 November 1083 King Ladislaus I translated Emeric’s relics in a large ceremony. Emeric was Canonised for his pious life and purity, along with his father and Bishop Gerard by Pope Gregory VII.

On the 900th Anniversary of the death of Prince Emeric, a National Memorial Year was organised in 1930–1931 and the village of Pestszentimre was named after him. The Church in the district also bears the name of the Saint-Prince and the first public Statue of the district depicts Saint Emeric. The Saint Emeric Memorial Year proclaimed for 1930–1931 moved the whole country and the settlements around Pest, which are now parts of Budapest. The two-year event series was such an important event that Pestszentimre, which belongs to the 18th District today, took the name of our first King’s, St. Stephen’s, son. The settlement had previously been called Soroksárpéteri.

St Emeric’s Church in the Town named for him
St Emeric in Pestszentimre

Saint of the Day – 27 February – St Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows CP (1838-1862)

Saint of the Day – 27 February – St Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows CP (1838-1862) Passionist Religious and student preparing for the Priesthood. Born as Francisco Giuseppe Vincenzo Possenti on 1 March 1838 at Assisi, Italy and died on 27 February 1862, just before his 24th birthday, at Abruzzi, Italy of tuberculosis. Gabriel was known for his great devotion to the Sorrows of the Virgin Mary. He is also known as Francesco Possenti, Francis Possenti, Gabriel of the Blessed Virgin, Gabriel of the Sorrowful Mother, Gabriel Possenti, Gabriel Marie Possenti, Gabriele dell’Addolorata. Patronages – Students, youth, seminarians, novices, clerics, Catholic Action, Abruzzi, Italy.

Francisco Possenti was born in Assisi on 1 March 1838, the eleventh child of thirteen children, to Sante Possenti and Agnes Frisciotti. The family were then resident in the town of Assisi where Sante worked for the local government. Francisco was Baptised on the day of his birth, in the same font in which Saint Francis of Assisi and St Clare had been Baptised and he was named after St Francis.

The first year of his life was spent away from his family with a nursing woman who cared for him because his mother was unable. In 1841 Sante, his father, moved the family to Spoleto where he was appointed Magistrate. In that same year, the youngest Possenti child died at just six months old; Francis’ nine-year old sister, Adele, soon followed. Just days later, his heartbroken mother was too called to eternal life. Francis had lost his mother at just 4 years old.

Tragedy continued to plague the family during his youth. In 1846 Francis’ brother, Paul, was killed in the Italian war with Austria. Another brother, Lawrence, later took his own life. Such events, however, did not rob Francis of his spirit and cheerfulness. During his formative years, Francis attended the school of the Christian brothers and then the Jesuit college in Spoleto. He was lively, intelligent and popular at school. At sixteen, he suffered a life-threatening illness. Praying for a cure, Francis promised to become a religious. With recovery, however, Francis quickly forgot his promise. But God’s call would not be denied and Francis soon turned his heart to the Congregation of the Passionists.

Sante Possenti was less than pleased with his teenage son’s decision. Determined to show Francis the joys of a secular life of theatre and society parties, Sante continued to hope Francis would find pleasure in a social life. But the young man was not to be dissuaded. Immediately after completion of his schooling, accompanied by his brother Aloysius, a Dominican friar, Francis set out for the novitiate of the Passionists at Morrovalle. During their journey they visited several relatives who had been enlisted by Sante to encourage Francis to return to Spoleto but this was to no avail. He arrived at the novitiate on 19 September1856. In the novitiate, he cultivated a great love for Christ Crucified.

Francis received the Passionist habit on 21 September 1856, which that year, was the Feast of the Sorrowful Mother. He was given the name: Gabriel of the Sorrowful Mother. Gabriel proved an excellent student and his excellence in academic life was only outdone by the great progress he was making in his spiritual life. At the same time Gabriel began to display the first symptoms of tuberculosis. The news did not worry Gabriel who was, in fact, joyful; he had prayed for a slow death so as to be able to prepare himself spiritually. Throughout his illness he remained cheerful and kept up all his usual practices. He was a source of great edification and inspiration to his fellow students, who later, would seek to spend time with him at his deathbed. Gabriel had proved himself an exemplary religious and a perfect follower of the Passionist Rule, being especially devoted to the Virgin Mary. A year later he took his vows. His monastic life preparing for the Priesthood, made Gabriel a secluded, non-public figure. His writings reflect his close relationship with God and His mother.

These were difficult and tumultuous times in Italy. The new Italian government issued decrees closing religious Orders in certain Provinces of the Papal States. The new Passionist province of Pieta, to which Gabriel belonged, was in the centre of this chaos. By 1860, the Passionists had ceased apostolic work due to the growing threats surrounding the community. During this period, various Italian Provinces were overrun by soldiers, who robbed and terrorised the towns with little mercy.

The people of Isola would always remember him as “their Gabriel.” Struck with tuberculosis at the age of 23, Gabriel died on 27 February 1862, before his Ordination to the Priesthood. His fidelity to prayer, joyfulness of spirit and habitual mortifications, stand out in his otherwise ordinary life. Pope Benedict XV Canonised Gabriel on13 May 1920 and declared him a patron of Catholic youth. His patronage is also invoked by the Church for students, seminarians, novices and clerics. Thousands of divine favours are attributed to his intercession with Christ Crucified and the Sorrowful Mother Mary.


Gabriel was buried o the day of his death. His companion in the novitiate, Blessed Bernard Mary of Jesus (1831-1911), exclaimed:

“Tears come to my eyes and I am filled with shame for having been so far from the virtues that he attained in such a short time.”

Millions of pilgrims visit St Gabriel’s Shrine in Isola del Gran Sasso d’Italia near Teramo each year, to venerate St Gabriel at his burial place and to visit the monastic house in which he lived out his final years.
There is an ongoing tradition every March, when thousands of high school students, from the Abruzzo and the Marche regions of Italy, visit his Tomb 100 days before their expected graduation day and pray to him in order to achieve success in their final examinisations.
Every two years, from mid-July to the beginning of October, the Italian Staurós ONLUS foundation hosts at St Gabriel’s Sanctuar,y a celebrated exposition of contemporary religious arts. With an average of 2 million visitors per year, this is one of the 15 most visited Sanctuaries in the world.

St Gabriel’s Shrine is in Isola del Gran Sasso d’Italia

Many miracles have been attributed to the Saint’s intercession; Saint Gemma Galgani proclaimed, that it was St Gabriel, who had cured her of a dangerous illness and led her to a Passionist vocation.


Saint of the Day – 31January – St John Bosco “Don Bosco” SDB (1815-1888)

Saint of the Day -31 January –  St John Bosco “Don Bosco” SDB (1815-1888) Founder of the Society of St Francis de Sales now known as the Salesians, the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians and the Association of Salesian Co-operators.   His body is

John Bosco’s theory of education could well be used in today’s schools.   It was a preventive system, rejecting corporal punishment and placing students in surroundings removed from the likelihood of committing sin.   He advocated frequent reception of the sacraments of Penance and Holy Communion.   He combined catechetical training and fatherly guidance, seeking to unite the spiritual life with one’s work, study and play.

Encouraged during his youth in Sardinia to become a priest so he could work with young boys, John was ordained in 1841.   His service to young people started when he met a poor orphan in Turin and instructed him in preparation for receiving Holy Communion. He then gathered young apprentices and taught them catechism.

After serving as chaplain in a hospice for working girls, Don Bosco opened the Oratory of St Francis de Sales for boys.   Several wealthy and powerful patrons contributed money, enabling him to provide two workshops for the boys, shoe-making and tailoring.don-bosco-mending-shoes.jpg

By 1856, the institution had grown to 150 boys and had added a printing press for publication of religious and catechetical pamphlets.   John’s interest in vocational education and publishing justify him as patron of young apprentices and Catholic publishers.

John’s preaching fame spread and by 1850 he had trained his own helpers because of difficulties in re-training young priests.   In 1854, he and his followers informally banded together, inspired by Saint Francis de Sales.don_bosco_vector_by_mokap-d33rb3d

With Pope Pius IX’s encouragement, John gathered 17 men and founded the Salesians in 1859.   Their activity concentrated on education and mission work.   Later, he organised a group of Salesian Sisters to assist girls.

John Bosco knew God wanted him to work with boys because of a dream he had when he was young.   In this dream, boys who had been playing roughly suddenly began playing together as happily as lambs.   John heard a voice saying,  “Teach them right from wrong. Teach them the beauty of goodness and the ugliness of sin.”   When John told his mother about his dream, she said it might mean God wanted him to be a priest and care for some of the sheep in his flock.

John Bosco spent so much time working that people who knew him well became worried about his health.   They said he should take more time for rest and sleep.   John replied that he’d have enough time to rest in heaven. “Right now,” he said, “how can I rest? The devil doesn’t rest from his work.”

When John died, 40,000 people came to his wake.don_bosco_1.jpg


Saint of the Day – 16 October – St Gerard Majella C.Ss.R. (1726-1755)

Saint of the Day – 16 October – St Gerard Majella C.Ss.R. (1726-1755) Religious Lay Brother of the Congregation of the Redeemer, better known as the Redemptorists, Apostle of the Holy Eucharist, Apostle of Charity, known as a Thaumaturge, a Saint who works miracles not just occasionally but as a matter of course.    Born on 23 April 1725 at Muro, Italy as Gerardo Maiella and died on 16 October 1755 at Caposele, Provincia di Avellino, Campania, Italy of tuberculosis, aged just 29.   Patronages – children (and unborn children in particular); childbirth; mothers (and expectant mothers in particular); motherhood; falsely accused people; good confessions; lay brothers; tennis ball football, head boys and Muro Lucano, Italy.St._Gerard_Majella__lg info

St Gerard was born in Muro Lucano, Basilicata, the youngest of five children.   He wanted very much to receive Holy Communion at the age of seven and went to the Communion railing one day with the others but the priest, seeing his age, passed him up; and he went back to his place in tears.   The following night, Saint Michael the Archangel brought him the Communion he so much desired.   His tailor father died when Gerard was twelve, leaving the family in poverty.   His mother then sent him to her brother so that he could teach Gerard to sew and follow in his father’s footsteps.   However, the foreman was abusive.   The boy kept silent but his uncle soon found out and the man who taught him resigned from the job.   After four years of apprenticeship, he took a job as a servant to work for the local Bishop of Lacedonia.   Upon the bishop’s death, Gerard returned to his trade, working first as a journeyman and then on his own account.   He divided his earnings between his mother and the poor and in offerings for the souls in Purgatory.

He tried to join the Capuchin Order but his health prevented it.   He had acquired a reputation of sanctity and finally, when he was 23 years old, he obtained the aid of some missionaries to second his request and was admitted as a Coadjutor of the newly founded Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, known as Redemptorists, in 1749.  The order was founded in 1732 by Saint Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787 Doctor of the Church) at Scala, near Naples.   The essentially missionary order is dedicated to “preaching the word of God to the poor.”   Its apostolate is principally in giving of missions and gerard

During his life, he was very close to the peasants and other outsiders who lived in the Neapolitan countryside.   In his work with the Redemptorist community, he was variously gardener, sacristan, tailor, porter, cook, carpenter and clerk of works on the new buildings at Caposele.

At 27, the good-looking Majella became the subject of a malicious rumour.   An acquaintance, Neria, accused him of having had relations with a young woman.   When confronted by St Alphonsus Liguori, the founder, on the accusations, the young lay brother remained silent.   The girl later recanted and cleared his name.

Some of Majella’s reported miracles include restoring life to a boy who had fallen from a high cliff, blessing the scanty supply of wheat belonging to a poor family and making it last until the next harvest and several times multiplying the bread that he was distributing to the poor.   One day, he walked across the water to lead a boatload of fishermen through stormy waves to the safety of the shore.   He was reputed to have had the gift of bilocation and the ability to read gerard majella

Once he conducted a group of students on a nine-day pilgrimage to Mount Gargano, where the Archangel Michael had appeared.   They had very little money for the tri, and when they arrived at the site, there was none left.   Gerard went before the Tabernacle and told Our Lord that it was His responsibility to take care of the little group.   He had been observed in the church by a religious, who invited the Saint and his companions to lodge in his residence.   When the party was ready to start home again, Gerard prayed once more, and immediately someone appeared and gave him a roll of bills.

His last will was a small note on the door of his cell:   “Here the will of God is done, as God wills and as long as God wills.”   He died at 29 of gerard unusual edit

One miracle in particular explains how Majella became known as the special patron of mothers.   A few months before his death, he visited the Pirofalo family and accidentally dropped his handkerchief.    One of the Pirofalo girls spotted the handkerchief moments after he had left the house and she ran after Gerard to return it.  “Keep it,” he said to her. “You may need it some day.”   Years later when the girl, now a married woman, was on the verge of losing her life in childbirth, she remembered the words of the saintly lay brother.   She asked for the handkerchief to be brought to her.   Almost immediately, the pain disappeared and she gave birth to a healthy child.   That was no small feat in an era when only one out of three pregnancies resulted in a live birth and word of the miracle spread quickly.

Because of the miracles that God worked through Gerard’s prayers with mothers, the mothers of Italy took Gerard to their hearts and made him their patron.   At the process of his beatification, one witness testified that he was known as “il santo dei felice parti,” “the saint of happy childbirths.”   It is a well-known patronage and many miracles still occur.    The St Gerard Majella Annual Novena takes place every year in St Josephs Church, Dundalk, Ireland.   This annual nine-day novena is the biggest festival of faith in Ireland.   St Joseph’s sponsors the St Gerard’s Family League, an International Association of Christians united in prayer for their own and other families, to preserve Christian values in their home and family life.   Since his death in 1775, countless favours and miracles have been granted and worked through his intercession. As well as the patron of a good confession, he has been invoked as a constant source of help and inspiration to parents. st gerard - family, mothers

St Gerard was Beatified in Rome on 29 January 1893, by Pope Leo XIII. He was Canonised less than twelve years later on 11 December 1904, by St Pope Pius X.beautiful - st gerard majella - maxresdefault


Saint of the Day – 31 January – St John Bosco/Don Bosco (1815-1888) Founder of the Salesians and the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians and the Association of Salesian Cooperators. 

Saint of the Day – 31 January – St John Bosco/Don Bosco  (1815-1888) Founder of the Salesians, the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians and the Association of Salesian Cooperators.   Priest, Confessor, Founder, Teacher, Writer, “Father and Teacher of Youth”.  St John Bosco was born Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco on 16 August 1815 and he died on 31 January 1888) at Turin, Italy of natural causes.   Patronages – apprentices, boys, editors, Mexican younth, labourers, schoolchildren, students.   His body is incorrupt.

st john bosco infoDON BOSCO LARGE

While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the effects of industrialisation and urbanisation, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents and other disadvantaged youth.   He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System.

A follower of the spirituality and philosophy of Saint Francis de Sales, Bosco was an ardent Marian devotee of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Mary Help of Christians.   He later dedicated his works to De Sales when he founded the Salesians of Don Bosco, based in Turin.    Together with Maria Domenica Mazzarello, he founded the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, a religious congregation of nuns dedicated to the care and education of poor girls.   He taught St Dominic Savio, of whom he wrote a biography that helped the young boy be canonised.

On 18 April 1869, one year after the construction of the Basilica of Mary Help of Christians in Turin, Don Bosco established the Association of Mary Help of Christians (ADMA) connecting it with commitments easily fulfilled by most common people, to the spirituality and the mission of the Salesian Congregation.   The ADMA was founded to promote the veneration of the Most Holy Sacrament and Mary Help of Christians.

In 1876 Bosco founded a movement of laity, the Association of Salesian Cooperators, with the same educational mission to the poor.   In 1875, he began to publish the Salesian Bulletin.   The Bulletin has remained in continuous publication and is currently published in 50 different editions and 30 languages.

John Bosco was born in August of 1815 into a family of peasant farmers in Castelnuovo d’Asti – a place which would one day be renamed in the saint’s honour as “Castelnuovo Don Bosco.”   John’s father died when he was two years old but he drew strength from his mother Margherita’s deep faith in God.   Margherita also taught her son the importance of charity, using portions of her own modest means to support those in even greater need.   John desired to pass on to his own young friends the example of Christian discipleship that he learned from his mother.

At age nine, he had a prophetic dream in which a number of unruly young boys were uttering words of blasphemy.   Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary appeared to John in the dream, saying he would bring such youths to God through the virtues of humility and charity.   Later on, this dream would help John to discern his calling as a priest.   But he also sought to follow the advice of Jesus and Mary while still a boy:  he would entertain his peers with juggling, acrobatics and magic tricks, before explaining a sermon he had heard, or leading them in praying the Rosary.

John’s older brother Anthony opposed his plan to be a priest and antagonised him so much that he left home to become a farm worker at age 12.   After moving back home three years later, John worked in various trades and finished school in order to attend seminary.   In 1841, John Bosco was ordained a priest.   From that time, John was known as “Don” Bosco, a traditional Italian title of honour for priests, which simply means “Father”.   In the city of Turin, he began ministering to boys and young men who lived on the streets, many of whom were without work or education.

The industrial revolution had drawn large numbers of people into the city to look for work that was frequently grueling and sometimes scarce  . Don Bosco was shocked to see how many boys ended up in prison before the age of 18, left to starve spiritually and sometimes physically.   He was determined to save as many young people as he could from a life of degradation.   He established a group known as the Oratory of St Francis de Sales, and became a kindly spiritual father to boys in need.   His aging mother helped support the project in its early years.

In 1859, John’s boyhood dream came to pass:   he became a spiritual guide and provider along with his fellow Salesian priests and brothers, giving boys religious instruction, lodging, educationand work opportunities.   He also helped Saint Mary Dominic Mazzarello form a similar group for girls.   This success did not come easily, as the priest struggled to find reliable accommodations and support for his ambitious apostolate.   Italy’s nationalist movement made life difficult for religious orders and its anti-clerical attitudes even led to assassination attempts against Don Bosco.saint-john-bosco-and-our-lady

But such hostility did not stop the Salesians from expanding in Europe and beyond.   They were helping 130,000 children in 250 houses by the end of Don Bosco’s life.   “I have done nothing by myself,” he stated, saying it was “Our Lady who has done everything” through her intercession with God.

John Bosco spent so much time working that people who knew him well became worried about his health.   They said he should take more time for rest and sleep.   John replied that he’d have enough time to rest in heaven.   “Right now,” he said, “how can I rest? The devil doesn’t rest from his work.”  St John Bosco died in the early hours of 31 January 1888, after conveying a message:  “Tell the boys that I shall be waiting for them all in Paradise.”   40,000 people came to his funeral.   Following his beatification in 1929, he was canonised on Easter Sunday of 1934 by Pope Pius XI.Don_Bosco_1don-bosco-square-notext2_16307588901_oSt+John+Bosco-2-largedon_bosco_vector_by_mokap-d33rb3d


Saint of the Day – 4 March – St Casimir (1458-1484) Confessor

Saint of the Day – 4 March – St Casimir- (1458-148) aged 25 Confessor, Prince, Celibate, Ascetic, Apostle of Prayer, Apostle of Charity and Mercy, Marian Devotee, Eucharistic Adorer, Confessor – Patronages – against plagues/epidemics, of bachelors, kings, princes, Lithuania (proclaimed by Pope Urban VIII in 1636, Poland, Grodno, Belarus, Diocese of, youth. His body is incorrupt.

Casimir Jagiellon was born in 1458, the third of thirteen children born to Poland’s King Casimir IV and his wife Elizabeth of Austria.   He and several of his brothers studied with the Priest and Historian, John Dlugosz, whose deep piety and political expertise influenced Casimir in his education.

The young Prince had a distaste for the luxury of courtly life and instead chose the way of asceticism and devotion.   He wore plain clothes with a hair shirt beneath them, slept frequently on the ground and would spend much of the night in prayer and meditation on the suffering and death of Christ.

Casimir showed his love for God through these exercises of devotion and also through his material charity to the poor.   He was known as a deeply compassionate young man who felt others’ pains acutely.

The young Prince was only 13 years old when his father was asked by the Hungarians to offer his son as their new King. Casimir was eager to aid the Hungarians in their defence against the Turks and went to be crowned.   This plan was unsuccessful, however and he was forced to return to Poland.

After his return Casimir resumed his studies with Fr Dlugosz, while developing a canny grasp of politics by observing his father’s rule.   In 1479 the King left Poland to attend to state business in Lithuania, leaving Prince Casimir in charge of the realm .between 1481 and 1483.

Advisers to the p=Prince joined his father in trying to convince Casimir to marry.   But he preferred to remain single, focusing his life on the service of God and the good of his people.

After experiencing symptoms of tuberculosis, Casimir foresaw his death and prepared for it by deepening his devotion to God.   He died en route to Lithuania on 4 March 1484 and was buried with a copy of the Marian Hymn he sang daily “Daily, Daily Sing to Mary.” Pope Adrian VI Canonised him in 1522.   After a lapse of one hundred and twenty years, his body was taken up, and found without the slightest sign of corruption.

Five centuries after his death, John Paul II recalled how St Casimir “embraced a life of celibacy, submitted himself humbly to God’s will in all things, devoted himself with tender love to the Blessed Virgin Mary and developed a fervent practice of adoring Christ present in the Blessed Sacrament.