Posted in MARIAN TITLES, MARTYRS, SAINT of the DAY

The Siege of Rhodes. Victory over the Turks by the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes in 1480 through the intercession of Our Lady and Memorials of the Saints – 28 July

The Siege of Rhodes. Victory over the Turks by the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes in 1480 through the intercession of Our Lady, final battle 27 July 1480 – commemorated on 28 July:

Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, the last remnant of the Holy Roman Empire, fell to the “Scourge of Europe,” the Sultan Mehmet II, in the year 1453. This dire news was almost impossible to believe in the rest of Christendom but, it was sadly true and Constantinople was made into the new seat of the Ottoman Empire.
A few short years later, Pierre D’Aubusson was Grand Master of the Hospitallers, the Knights of Saint John, living on the island of Rhodes. He and his Knights were untiring opponents of Islam, sworn to do everything in their power to fight against them. Having made the island of Rhodes their home, the Knights harassed Ottoman shipping lanes and assisted with attacks against the Ottoman Empire.
In the year 1479, D’Aubusson refused to pay tribute to Mehmet in exchange for peace and furthermore, had the audacity to continue harassing the sultan’s shipping lanes. The Grand Master continued to work on the massive fortifications on Rhodes as he awaited the siege of Rhodes that he knew would soon come. His walls were strong but the Grand Master had only a few hundred Knights and about 2,000 natives to defend them.
Mehmet was not intimidated by the Christian defenses on Rhodes, for he had huge cannons and basilisks which had blasted holes in the stout walls of Constantinople. He also had over 70,000 men in his army, and he was determined to wipe out “that abode of the sons of Satan,” as he referred to the Catholic Knights of Rhodes.
The Siege of Rhodes began with a tremendous bombardment on the Tower of Saint Nicholas. Grand Master Pierre D’Aubusson was not intimidated as he asked: “What is more sacred than to defend the Faith? What is happier than to fight for Christ?”
Breaches were eventually made in the walls and the Muslim’s unremittingly attempted to rush through the breaches. Many of the Turks had to be forced to attack the defenses, as their commanders lashed them forward with whips and chains. The Janissaries, however, did not have to be urged, for they were the sultan’s finest troops. They were warriors to the core and advanced over the fallen bodies of their comrades, anxious to cross swords with the Catholic Knights.
Finally, the Tower of Italy began to crumble from the terrific assault, and large breaches opened in the wall. The Bashi-Bazouks and Janissaries rushed into the breach, placing the standard of Islam above the Tower.
On witnessing this act, the Grandmaster rushed into the breach together with a few of his excellent Knights. Howling and raging like madmen, the Janissaries pressed the assault, for the Knights seemed too few to stand against their wave after wave of thousands of elite warriors. Yet, the Grandmaster stood, insensible of any wounds he received in return for the carnage he wreaked among the fanatical Muslim warriors.
Fighting with broken blades and notched axes, the Knights of Saint John continued to hold the breach, cutting down any who approached them, until a huge Janissary rose up and hurled a spear with all his might directly at the Grand Master. Propelled at incredible speed, the sharp steel tip easily pierced D’Aubusson’s breastplate, puncturing a lung. The Grand Master went down beneath a torrent of hacking blades as the Knights struggled to drag his body from the fray.

The 1480 Siege of Rhodes. Neapolitan ships in the forefront and Turkish camp in the background.

By his courageous stand D’Aubusson had proven he was at least the equal of any Grand Master in history, but now, he was wounded unto death and could do no more. The siege of Rhodes appeared to be lost as D’Aubusson’s Knights struggled to haul him to safety. Thousands of Jannisaries were rushing into the breach with no-one to stop them and at this point the Knights knew, it would take a miracle to keep Rhodes from being overrun.
A miracle is exactly what they got. Suddenly there appeared in the sky “a refulgent cross of gold, by the side of which stood a beautiful woman clothed in garments of dazzling white, a lance in her hand and a shield on her arm, accompanied by a man dressed in goatskins and followed by a band of heavenly warriors armed with flaming swords.” It was the glorious figures of Saint John the Baptist, the Patron Saint of the Order of Saint John, Saint Michael the Archangel brandishing his unsheathed sword and the Queen of Heaven, the Blessed Virgin Mary herself, dressed in battle array!
The Turks turned at the sight and ran in panic-stricken flight. Thousands fell as they fled, cut down and pursued through the breaches by the Knights of Rhodes and their heavenly allies. Chased all the way back to their camp, it was now the defeated Muslims who suffered the insult of having their sultan’s own standard captured.

The siege of Rhodes had ended, and Grandmaster D’Aubusson later recovered of his wounds. He had lost 231 of his Knights but that was nothing compared to the thousands upon thousands of Muslim warriors who lay dead upon his shores.
It was in the year of Our Lord 1480 that the Knights of Rhodes had gained this signal victory over the Turks, by the help of the Blessed Virgin, whom the Knights regarded ever after as Our Lady of Victory. They renewed their dedication to her who had appeared on the walls during the siege of Rhodes holding a lance in her hand to defend them, bringing with her Saint Michael the Archangel and a heavenly army. She, the Patroness of the Sovereign and Military Order of Hospitallers, had turned the formerly obstinate enemy, who retired in disorder, to lose the greater part of their army. Thanks BE to Our Lady of Victory, the all-conquering sword of Mehmet II had shattered upon the walls of Rhodes!

St Acacius of Miletus

St Alphonsa of the Immaculae Conception/India FCC (1910-1946) Franciscan Nun. She is the first Canonised Saint of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church of the Saint Thomas Christian community.
About St Alphonsa:

https://anastpaul.com/2017/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-st-alphonsa-of-the-immaculate-conception/

St Arduinus of Trepino
St Botwid of Sudermannland
St Camelian of Troyes
St Celsus of Rome
Bl Christodoulos
Bl Davíd Carlos-Marañon
St Eustathius of Galatia
St Pope Innocent I (Died 417)
St Irene of Cappadocia
Bl John Soreth
St José Caselles-Moncho
Bl José Melchór García-Sampedro Suárez
Bl Josep Castell-Camps
St Longinus of Satala
St Lucidius of Aquara
St Lyutius
Bl Manuel Segura-López
St Nazarius of Rome

St Pedro Poveda Castroverde (1874-1936) Priest and Martyr, Founder of the Teresian Association.
Biography:

https://anastpaul.com/2019/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-saint-pedro-poveda-castroverde-1874-1936-martyr/

St Peregrinus
St Samson of York

Blessed Stanley Francis Rother (1935-1981) Priest, Martyr, Missionary. He is the first US-born Priest and Martyr to be Beatified (on 23 September 2017) and the second person to be Beatified on US soil following the 2014 Beatification of New Jersey-born nun, Blessed Miriam Teresa Demjanovich S.C. (1901-1927).
Biography:

https://anastpaul.com/2018/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-blessed-stanley-francis-rother-1935-1981-martyr/

St Pope Victor I (Died c 199) The 14th Bishop of Rome, Martyr.
https://anastpaul.com/2020/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-saint-pope-victor-i-died-199/

Martyrs of Laodicea – 8 saints

Martyred in the Spanish Civil War – Thousands of people were murdered in the anti-Catholic persecutions of the Spanish Civil War from 1934 to 1939.
Martyrs of Fernán Caballero – 14 beati: Fourteen Claretian clerics who were martyred together in the Spanish Civil War. – 28 July 1936 in Fernán Caballero, Ciudad Real, Spain.
Bl Antolín Astorga Díez
Bl Enrique Serra Chorro
Bl Gregorio Charlez Ribera
Bl Joan Ayats Plantalech
Bl Joan Bover Teixidor
Bl Joan Costa Canal
Bl José Aurelio Calleja de Hierro
Bl José Gutiérrez Arranz
Bl Josep Camí y Camí
Bl Josep Martí Coll
Bl Lluis Casanovas Vila
Bl Lorenzo Arribas Palacio
Bl Manuel Collellmir Sentíes
Bl Miguel Léibar Garay
Bl Narcís Felíu Costa
Bl Pedro Alonso Fernández
Bl Pelagi Ayats Vergés
Bl Pere Vilar Espona
Bl Primitivo Sandín Miñambres
Bl Ramon Gros Ballbé
Bl Vicente Toledano Valenciano

Posted in MARTYRS, SAINT of the DAY

Saint of the Day – 28 July – Saint Pope Victor I (Died 199)

Saint of the Day – 28 July – Saint Pope Victor I (Died 199) Pope, Martyr, Confessor – born in Africa, exact location not recorded in the early years of the 2nd Century.   His Papal Ascension was in 189 and died by being Martyred 198-199 (though the date of his death and whether he was martyred is not certain).   He was the first Bishop of Rome born in the Roman Province of Africa—probably in Leptis Magna (or Tripolitania).   Nothing else is known of his younger years.St-Pope-Victor-I-1

Victor’s reign showed many changes in the Church.   Culture had begun to change in the Roman Empire.   No longer was Greek the standard language.   Latin had taken precedence as the official language of the Church, as well.   Victor, unlike many of his predecessors, wrote in Latin.   During the time of peace in the Church, Victor acted more like a ruler than many of the previous Bishops of Rome had been able to.

The mistress of Emperor Commodus was a woman named Marcia.   It is said that she was a secret Christian, or at least, a woman tolerant towards Christianity.   At one time, she called Victor to her, asking for a list of names of the Christians who had been sentenced to work in the mines of Sardinia.   He gave her a list.   This implies that the Christians were a tight group who knew each other well enough to keep tabs on one another.   Marcia had them pardoned and sent the presbyter Hyacinthus, who may have been her advisor, to secure their release.  One man, Callistus, chose to remain behind, possibly to preach to the pagans there.   The Roman Christians sent him a stipend until he left.st Pope_Victor_I

At the time, not only was there peace but Christians could practice their religion and serve in the imperial court, which some did.   This was a time when the Church attracted men and women of position and wealth.

Victor sought to solidify Roman control of the Church throughout the Mediterranean.   He proclaimed that Easter was to be celebrated only on Sunday, a continuing battle, if you have read other entries on the Popes.   Many Middle Eastern Christians had moved to Rome and were celebrating Easter as they did at home, following the Passover dates, rather than having Easter on a specific day.   Victor requested their Bishops to send him a letter indicating how many people followed this custom.   It was the great majority.   Victor was not pleased and he went so far as to demand that the Eastern churches follow his rule.   He set up the first Synod of Rome to deal with this.   But, Eastern churches chose to ignore Victor and continued as they were, despite his threat of excommunication.   St Ireneas, Bishop of Lyons and others wrote to Victor asking him to not be so harsh and demanding that he keep the Middle Eastern Churches within the fold.   There are no letters of response from Victor but he must have relented because the Eastern churches remained.st.victor1

There was a Priest who had known St Polycarp and was probably taught by him.   The man’s name was Florinus.   He began to teach questionable doctrine and eventually Gnostic heresy.  St Ireneas wrote two treatises against Forinus’ preaching then notified Victor of the man’s work.  Pope Victor immediately excommunicated sndf defrocked Florinus.

Another man, Theodotus, came to Rome from Asia and preached that Jesus was just a normal man until he was Baptised and was endowed with the Spirit.   As much as Victor tried to excommunicate him, Theodotus continued his preaching.   He and his followers developed a schismatic group which continued for a while.-Pope-Saint-Victor-I

In addition to these two, the Montanists were still troubling the churches of Asia with their odd prophecies, indicating that marriage was as much a sin as adultery and on and on.  At first, from a distance, Victor thought them to be just zealously pious.   But when some came to speak to him, he realised his mistake and ordered excommunication.

In addition to Victor’s writings about the paschal question, he was known to have written a treatise against gambling.

Considering the attitudes of the government at the time, it is thought that St Pope Victor probably did not die as a Martyr.

Pope-Victor-I-Bone-Relic-300x300
Pope St Victor I – Bone Relic

Posted in MARTYRS, SAINT of the DAY

Memorials of the Saints – 28 July

St Acacius of Miletus
St Alphonsa of the Immaculate Conception/India FCC (1910-1946)
About St Alphonsa:
https://anastpaul.com/2017/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-st-alphonsa-of-the-immaculate-conception/
St Arduinus of Trepino
St Botwid of Sudermannland
St Camelian of Troyes
St Celsus of Rome
Bl Christodoulos
Bl Davíd Carlos-Marañon
St Eustathius of Galatia
St Irene of Cappadocia
Bl John Soreth
St José Caselles-Moncho
Bl José Melchór García-Sampedro Suárez
Bl Josep Castell-Camps
St Longinus of Satala
St Lucidius of Aquara
St Lyutius
Bl Manuel Segura-López
St Nazarius of Rome
St Pedro Poveda Castroverde (1874-1936) Priest and Martyr
His Life and Martyrdom:
https://anastpaul.com/2019/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-saint-pedro-poveda-castroverde-1874-1936-martyr/

St Peregrinus
St Samson of York
Blessed Stanley Francis Rother (1935-1981) Martyr
Biography:
https://anastpaul.com/2018/07/28/saint-of-the-day-28-july-blessed-stanley-francis-rother-1935-1981-martyr/

He is the first US-born Priest and Martyr to be Beatified (on 23 September 2017) and the second person to be Beatified on US soil following the 2014 Beatification of New Jersey-born nun, Blessed Miriam Teresa Demjanovich S.C. (1901-1927).
His First Feast Day today, 28 July 2018

St Pope Victor I (Died 199) Martyr


Martyrs of Laodicea – 8 saints

Martyrs of Thebaid: A large but unspecified number of Christians who were imprisoned, tortured and murdered together in the persecutions of Decius and Valerian. 3rd century Thebes, Egypt.

Martyred in the Spanish Civil War – Thousands of people were murdered in the anti-Catholic persecutions of the Spanish Civil War from 1934 to 1939.
Martyrs of Fernán Caballero – 14 beati: Fourteen Claretian clerics who were martyred together in the Spanish Civil War. – 28 July 1936 in Fernán Caballero, Ciudad Real, Spain. They were Beatified on 13 October 2013 by Pope Francis.

Bl Antolín Astorga Díez
Bl Enrique Serra Chorro
Bl Gregorio Charlez Ribera
Bl Joan Ayats Plantalech
Bl Joan Bover Teixidor
Bl Joan Costa Canal
Bl José Aurelio Calleja de Hierro
Bl José Gutiérrez Arranz
Bl Josep Camí y Camí
Bl Josep Martí Coll
Bl Lluis Casanovas Vila
Bl Lorenzo Arribas Palacio
Bl Manuel Collellmir Sentíes
Bl Miguel Léibar Garay
Bl Narcís Felíu Costa
Bl Pedro Alonso Fernández
Bl Pelagi Ayats Vergés
Bl Pere Vilar Espona
Bl Primitivo Sandín Miñambres
Bl Ramon Gros Ballbé
Bl Vicente Toledano Valenciano