Catholic Devotion for the Month of August – The Immaculate Heart of Mary

Catholic Devotion for the Month of August:  The Immaculate Heart of Mary

The month of August is dedicated to the Immaculate Heart.   Since the 16th century Catholic piety has assigned entire months to special devotions.  The month of August is traditionally dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.   The physical heart of Mary is venerated (and not adored as the Sacred Heart of Jesus is) because it is united to her person and is the seat of her love (especially for her divine Son), virtue and inner life. Such devotion is an incentive to a similar love and virtue.   Just as the Sacred Heart represents Christ’s love for mankind, the Immaculate Heart represents the desire of the Blessed Virgin to bring all people to her Son.

This devotion has received new emphasis in this century from the visions given to Lucy Dos Santos, oldest of the visionaries of Fatima, in her convent in Tuy, in Spain, in 1925 and 1926.   In the visions Our Lady asked for the practice of the Five First Saturdays to help make amends for the offenses committed against her heart by the blasphemies and ingratitude of men.   The practice parallels the devotion of the Nine First Fridays in honour of the Sacred Heart.

In the midst of the second world war Pope Pius XII put the whole world under the special protection of our Saviour’s Mother by consecrating it to her Immaculate Heart and in 1944 he decreed that in the future the whole Church should celebrate the feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary.   This is not a new devotion.   In the seventeenth century, St. John Eudes preached it together with that of the Sacred Heart;  in the nineteenth century, Pius VII and Pius IX allowed several churches to celebrate a feast of the Pure Heart of Mary.   Pius XII instituted today’s feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the whole Church, so as to obtain by her intercession “peace among nations, freedom for the Church, the conversion of sinners, the love of purity and the practice of virtue” (Decree of May 4, 1944).   On October 31, 1942, Pope Pius XII made a solemn Act of Consecration of the Church and the whole world to the Immaculate Heart.   Let us remember this devotion year-round, but particularly through the month of August.

devotion for august - the immaculate heart of mary


Novena to St Dominic – DAY THREE – 1 August

Novena to St Dominic

Third Day:  Compunction of Heart
Those who fear the Lord seek to please him, those who love him are filled with his law. Those who fear the Lord prepare their hearts and humble themselves before him. Let us fall into the hands of the Lord and not into the hands of men, for equal to his majesty is the mercy that he shows. (Sirach 2: 16-18)


Though so pure that Holy Church calls him “Ivory of Chastity” and Christian art puts a lily into his hands, Dominic was always weeping over sin.   His soul being full of contrition, acts of sorrow were constantly upon his lips.   On seeing towns or villages, he used to weep over the sins committed there against God.   But this sorrow was not merely hidden in the soul;  it bore fruit in works of penance.   Three times every night he scourged himself:  once for his own sins, once for those of others and once for the suffering souls.   He was a rule of abstinence, even on journeys never eating meat or food cooked with meat.   His fasts were strict and continual; even when traveling over Europe on foot, he fasted from September until Easter, though preaching daily.   He never had a room of his own but slept anywhere: on the ground, a bench, or the altar step.   Being a zealous lover of the rule, he punished faults but with such fatherly love that penance was accepted and even desired from his hands.

“If you have no sins of your own to weep for,” St. Dominic would say, “still weep, after the example of our Lord Jesus Christ and grieve for the sinners of the world that they may repent.”

Anyone who does not take up his cross and follow me cannot be my disciple. (Luke 14:27)

Pray for us, blessed father, St. Dominic, That we may be made worthy of the prom­ises of Christ.

Let us pray:

O zealous preacher of penance,
Holy Father St. Dominic,
whose ardent desire for the salvation of souls,
made you ever ready to endure the greatest labours and fatigues
and even to give your life in order to win them to God,
pray for us, that treading in the steps of Jesus Crucified,
the Redeemer and Physician of souls,
we may disregard all suffering
and generously sacrifice ourselves
for the needs of others.
Grant us we pray, true contrition and
sadness for our sins and for those of all the world.
Teach us how to do penance for all the pain we cause
our Lord and Saviour.
Pray too Holy St Dominic,
that our penance may draw back those
who have lapsed from the one, true faith
and for this our special intention …
(make your request)
Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen


Posted in MORNING Prayers, NOVENAS

NOVENA in Honour of and preparation for, the Feast of the Transfiguration of our Lord – Day Five – 1 August

NOVENA Transfiguration of our Lord – Day Five – 1 August

Explanation of this Novena here:

The Revelation of Christ’s Divine Glory

Fifth Day: For all the Church

The transfiguration anticipates the paschal mystery which begins with the cross. Jesus can attain His permanent glory in his resurrection. But first He must die on the cross. Transfiguration appears as a preparation and strengthening for the disciples to face the coming passion and death of Jesus, when His glory seems most unseen. It was given to the disciples to prepare them for the tragedy of the cross.

Let us Pray:

O Christ,
before Your passion and death
You revealed the resurrection
to Your disciple on Mount Tabor;
we pray for Your holy church
which labours amid the cares
and anxieties of this world,
that in its trials we, who are the Church,
may always be transfigured
by the joy of Your Victory. Amen


Posted in MORNING Prayers, NOVENAS

Novena In Honour of Saint John Marie Vianney – Day Seven– 1 August

Novena In Honour of Saint John Marie Vianney

DAY SEVEN – We Pray for strength against SATAN

Let us Pray:

O Holy Priest of Ars,
the infamous attacks of the devil
which you had to suffer
and the trials which disheartened you by fatigue,
would not make you give up the sublime task of converting souls.
The devil came to you for many years to disturb your short rest
but you won because of mortification and prayers.
Powerful protector,
you know the temptor’s desire to harm my baptised and believing soul.
He would have me sin, by rejecting the Holy Sacraments
and the life of virtue.
But good Saint of Ars dispel from me the traces of the enemy.
Holy Priest of Ars,
I have confidence in your intercession.
Pray for me during this novena especially for …
(mention silently your special intentions).
Our Father, Hail Mary, Glory Be.


Posted in JESUIT SJ, MORNING Prayers, SAINT of the DAY

Thought for the Day – 1 August – The Feast of St Peter Faber S.J.

Thought for the Day – 1 August – The Feast of St Peter Faber S.J.

Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum! On 13 November 2013 Pope Francis announced the canonisation of Pierre Favre, SJ, aka Peter Faber (1506-46).   For many Catholics the response was probably, “Who?”

For most Jesuits, though, the response was probably, “Finally!”   For Pierre Favre has been a Blessed since…1872. Francis has announced this as an “equivalent canonization,” as Pope Benedict XVI had done with the canonization of St Hildegard of Bingen.   In these cases the devotion to the saint is already well established.

In the Pope’s recent interview in America, he singled out for praise the man often called the “Second Jesuit.”   The Pope was asked the reason for his devotion to this “First Companion” of St. Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus. “[Pierre Favre’s] dialogue with all,” said the pope, “even the most remote and even with his opponents;  his simple piety, a certain naïveté perhaps, his being available straightaway, his careful interior discernment, the fact that he was a man capable of great and strong decisions but also capable of being so gentle and loving.”   Favre spent a great deal of his Jesuit life working with Protestants during the explosive time of the Reformation; and, as the pope intimated, he always did so with great openness and charity–during a time when they were called “heretics.”

One of my favorite quotes from Pierre–no, my favorite–is: “Take care, take care, never to close your heart to anyone.”

Favre was said by St. Ignatius to be the man best suited to direct others in the Spiritual Exercises–quite an accolade from the author of the Exercises.   But, surprisingly, Favre’s story is not nearly as well known as those of his two famous college roommates, Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier.   (When I once asked an elderly Jesuit why Favre was still a Blessed and not a saint, he said,  “Even in heaven he is humble! He doesn’t want to place himself on par with Ignatius and Xavier.”)   Many Jesuits are devoted to this humble spiritual master: the new Jesuit residence at Boston College for men in formation is named after him–though they may have to sandblast the “Blessed” on the stone sign in front of the house.   But he still languishes in relative obscurity.   Or will for another month.   Indeed, that so many writers can’t even agree on a standard way of referring to the man–you will see, variously, the original French “Pierre Favre,” the somewhat modified Anglo-French “Peter Favre,” and the totally Anglicized “Peter Faber”–is an indication of the lack of attention given him.   That of course changes with the canonisation.

For Favre, a man troubled all his life by a “scrupulous” conscience, that is, an excessive self-criticism, Ignatius was a literal godsend. “He gave me an understanding of my conscience,” wrote Favre.   Ultimately, Ignatius led Peter through the Spiritual Exercises, something that dramatically altered Favre’s worldview.

This happened despite some very different backgrounds.   And here is one area where Ignatius and his friends highlight an insight on relationships: friends need not be cut from the same cloth.   The friend with whom you the least in common may be the most helpful for your personal growth.   Ignatius and Peter had, until they met, led radically different lives.   Peter came to Paris at age 19 after what his biographer called his “humble birth,” having spent his youth in the fields as a shepherd.   Imbued with a simple piety toward Mary, the saints, relics, processions, and shrines and also angels, Peter clung to the simple faith of his childhood.   Ignatius, on the other hand, had spent many years as a courtier and some of them as a soldier, undergone a dramatic conversion, subjected himself to extreme penances, wandered to Rome and the Holy Land in pursuit of his goal of following God’s will.

One friend had seen little of the world; the other much.   One had always found religion a source of solace;  the other had proceeded to God along a tortuous path.

Ultimately, Ignatius helped Peter to arrive at some important decisions through the freedom offered in the Spiritual Exercises.   Peter’s indecision before this moment sounds refreshingly modern, much like the frustrating indecision of any college student today.   He wrote about it in his journals:

“Before that–I mean before having settled on the course of my life through the help given to me by God through Inigo–I was always very unsure of myself and blown about by many winds:  sometimes wishing to be married, sometimes a doctor, sometimes a lawyer, sometimes a professor of theology, sometimes a cleric without a degree–at times wishing me to be a monk.”

In time, Peter decided to join Ignatius on his new path, whose ultimate destination was still unclear.   Peter, sometimes called the “Second Jesuit,” was enthusiastic about the risky venture from the start.  “In the end,” he writes, “we became one in desire and will and one in a firm resolve to take up the life we lead today….”   His friend changed his life.   Later, Ignatius would say that Favre was the most skilled of all the Jesuits in giving the Spiritual Exercises.   From The Jesuit Guide to Almost Everything.

So dear humble St Peter, we ask of you to pray that we too may become humble in the service of our Lord. Please pray for us!

st peter faber pray for us

Posted in JESUIT SJ, MORNING Prayers, QUOTES of the SAINTS, SAINT of the DAY

Quote/s of the Day – 1 August – Memorials of St Alphonsus Liquori of St Peter Faber S.J.

Quote/s of the Day – 1 August – Memorials of St Alphonsus Liquori and of St Peter Faber S.J.

“Know also that you will probably gain more
by praying fifteen minutes
before the Blessed Sacrament
than by all the other spiritual exercises of the day.
True, Our Lord hears our prayers anywhere,
for He has made the promise, ‘Ask, and you shall receive,’
but He has revealed to His servants,
that those who visit Him in the Blessed Sacrament
will obtain a more abundant measure of grace.”

know also that you will probably gain more - st alphonsus

“Your God is ever beside you –
indeed, He is even within you.”


“St Augustine and St Thomas
define mortal sin
to be a turning away from God:
that is, the turning of one’s back upon God,
leaving the Creator for the sake of the creature.
What punishment would that subject deserve who,
while his king was giving him a command,
contemptuously turned his back upon him to go
and transgress his orders?
This is what the sinner does;
and this is punished in hell with the pain of loss,
that is, the loss of God,
a punishment richly deserved by him
who in this life turns his back upon his sovereign good.”

st augustine and st thomas define mortal sin - st alphonsus

“Let us thank God
for having called us to His holy faith.
It is a great gift
and the number of those,
who thank God for it is small.”

St Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787) Doctor of the Church

let us thank god for having called us - st alphonsus

“Seek grace in the smallest things
and you will find also grace,
to accomplish,
to believe in
and to hope for
the greatest things.”

St Peter Faber S.J.

seek grace in the smallest things - st peter faber

Posted in DOCTORS of the Church, MORNING Prayers, QUOTES of the SAINTS, SAINT of the DAY, The WORD

One Minute Reflection – 1 August – The Feast of St Alphonsus Liguori

One Minute Reflection – 1 August

May the Lord…make you overflow with love for one another and for all.1 Thessalonians 3:12

1 THES 3 12 (2)

REFLECTION – “The means for attaining perfect love is to accomplish frequent acts of love.
Fire is kindled by the wood that we cast into it and love is enkindled by acts of love.”….St Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787) Doctor of the Church

the means for attaining perfect love - st alphonsus liguori

PRAYER – Loving Father, grant me the grace to strive after perfect love. Help me to bring forth frequent acts of love, to all and sundry, to each of my neighbours, so that I may grow in this greatest of virtues. St Alphonsus Liguori pray for us, amen.

st alphonsus liguori - pray for us

Posted in DOCTORS of the Church, MORNING Prayers, PRAYERS of the SAINTS, SAINT of the DAY

Our Morning Offering – 1 August

Our Morning Offering – 1 August

Morning Prayer of St. Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787)
Doctor of the Church
Doctor zelantissimus (Most Zealous Doctor)

My most sweet Lord,
I offer and consecrate to You this morning
all that I am and have:
my senses,
my thoughts,
my affections,
my desires,
my pleasures,
my inclinations,
my liberty.
In a word,
I place my whole body and soul in Your hands. Amen


Posted in SAINT of the DAY

Saint of the Day – 2 August – St Alphonsus Maria de Liguori C.Ss.R. – Doctor of the Church

Saint of the Day – 2 August – St Alphonsus Maria de Liguori C.Ss.R. – Doctor of the Church-Bishop, Founder, Spiritual Writer, Composer, Musician, Artist, Poet, Lawyer, Scholastic Philosopher and Theologian (27 September 1696 at Marianelli near Naples, Italy – 1 August 1787 at Nocera, Italy of natural causes)   He was Canonised on 26 May 1839 by Pope Gregory XVI and declared Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius IX in 1871.    He founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the Redemptorists). In 1762 he was appointed Bishop of Sant’Agata dei Goti.  Patronages – against arthritis, against scrupulosity, confessors (given on 26 February 1950 by Pope Pius XII), final perseverance, moral theologians, moralists (1950 by Pope Pius XII), scrupulous people, theologians, vocations, diocese of Acerra, Italy, diocese of Agrigento, Italy,l Pagani, Italy, Sant’Agata de’ Goti, Italy.   Attributes – chaplet, praying with a monstrance in his hands, pen, quill, crucifix, writing, bishop with his chin on his chest (due to his arthritis).

St Alphonsus learned to ride and fence but was never a good shot because of poor eyesight.   Myopia and chronic asthma precluded a military career so his father had him educated for the legal profession.   He was taught by tutors before entering the University of Naples, where he graduated with doctorates in civil and canon law at 16. He remarked later that he was so small at the time that he was almost buried in his doctor’s gown and that all the spectators laughed.   When he was 18, like many other nobles, he joined the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mercy with whom he assisted in the care of the sick at the hospital for “incurables”.

He became a successful lawyer.  He was thinking of leaving the profession and wrote to someone, “My friend, our profession is too full of difficulties and dangers;  we lead an unhappy life and run risk of dying an unhappy death”.   At 27, after having lost an important case, the first he had lost in eight years of practicing law, he made a firm resolution to leave the profession of law.   Moreover, he heard an interior voice saying: “Leave the world, and give yourself to me.”

In 1723, he decided to offer himself as a novice to the Oratory of St. Philip Neri with the intention of becoming a priest.   His father opposed the plan but after two months (and with his Oratorian confessor’s permission), he and his father compromised:  he would study for the priesthood but not as an Oratorian and live at home.   He was ordained on 21 December 1726, at 30.   He lived his first years as a priest with the homeless and the marginalised youth of Naples.   He became very popular because of his plain and simple preaching.   He said: “I have never preached a sermon which the poorest old woman in the congregation could not understand”.    He founded the Evening Chapels, which were managed by the young people themselves.   The chapels were centres of prayer and piety, preaching, community, social activities and education.   At the time of his death, there were 72, with over 10,000 active participants.   His sermons were very effective at converting those who had been alienated from their faith.

Liguori suffered from scruples much of his adult life and felt guilty about the most minor issues relating to sin.    Moreover, the saint viewed scruples as a blessing at times and wrote:  “Scruples are useful in the beginning of conversion…. they cleanse the soul and at the same time make it careful”.

In 1729, Alphonsus left his family home and took up residence in the Chinese Institute in Naples.   It was there that he began his missionary experience in the interior regions of the Kingdom of Naples, where he found people who were much poorer and more abandoned than any of the street children in Naples.   In 1731, while he was ministering to earthquake victims in the town of Foggia, Alphonsus claimed to have had a vision of the Virgin Mother in the appearance of a young girl of 13 or 14, wearing a white veil.

Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (The Rdemptorists)

On 9 November 1732, he founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, when Sister Maria Celeste Crostarosa told him that it had been revealed to her that he was the one that God had chosen to found the congregation.   He founded the congregation with the charism of preaching popular missions in the city and the countryside.   Its goal was to teach and preach in the slums of cities and other poor places.   They also fought Jansenism, a heresy that supported a very strict morality:  “the penitents should be treated as souls to be saved rather than as criminals to be punished”.  He is said never to have refused absolution to a penitent.

A gifted musician and composer, he wrote many popular hymns and taught them to the people in parish missions.   In 1732, while he was staying at the Convent of the Consolation, one of his order’s houses in the small city of Deliceto in the province of Foggia in Southeastern Italy, Liguori wrote the Italian carol “Tu scendi dalle stelle” (“From Starry Skies Descending”) in the musical style of a pastorale.   The version with Italian lyrics was based on his original song written in Neapolitan, which began Quanno nascette Ninno (When the child was born).   As it was traditionally associated with the zampogna, or large-format Italian bagpipe, it became known as Canzone d’i zampognari the (“Carol of the Bagpipers”).

Alphonsus was consecrated Bishop of Sant’Agata dei Goti in 1762.   He tried to refuse the appointment by using his age and infirmities as arguments against his consecration.   He wrote sermons, books and articles to encourage devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin Mary.   He first addressed ecclesiastical abuses in the diocese, reformed the seminary and spiritually rehabilitated the clergy and faithful.   He suspended those priests who celebrated Mass in less than 15 minutes and sold his carriage and episcopal ring to give the money to the poor.   In the last years of his life, he suffered a painful sickness and a bitter persecution from his fellow priests, who dismissed him from the Congregation that he had founded.

St-Alphonsus-at Mt St A, smST ALPHONSUS - 2.AUG 1st alphonsus 3ST ALPHONSUS - HOLYCARD

In 1775, he was allowed to retire from his office and went to live in the Redemptorist community in Pagani, Italy, where he died.

Veneration and legacy
He was beatified on 15 September 1816 by Pope Pius VII and canonized on 26 May 1839 by Pope Gregory XVI.

In 1949, the Redemptorists founded the Alphonsian Academy for the advanced study of Catholic moral theology.   He was named the patron of confessors and moral theologians by Pope Pius XII on 26 April 1950, who subsequently wrote of him in the encyclical Haurietis aquas.

Moral theology
Alphonsus’ greatest contribution to the Church was in the area of moral theology.    His masterpiece was The Moral Theology (1748), which was approved by the Pope himself and was born of Alphonsus’ pastoral experience, his ability to respond to the practical questions posed by the faithful and his contact with their everyday problems.   He opposed sterile legalism and strict rigoururism.   According to him, those were paths closed to the Gospel because “such rigour has never been taught nor practiced by the Church”.   His system of moral theology is noted for its prudence, avoiding both laxism and excessive rigour.   Since its publication it has remained in Latin, often in 10 volumes or in the combined 4-volume version of Gaudé.   It saw only recently its first publication in translation, in an English translation made by Ryan Grant and published in 2017 by Mediatrix Press.   The English translation of the work is projected to be around 5 volumes.

His Mariology, though mainly pastoral in nature, rediscovered, integrated and defended that of St Augustine of Hippo, St Ambrose of Milan and other fathers;  it represented an intellectual defence of Mariology in the 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, against the rationalism to which his often flaming Marian enthusiasm contrasted:

The Glories of Mary
Marian Devotion
Prayers to the Divine Mother
Spiritual Songs
The True Spouse of Jesus Christ

Other works
Great Means of Salvation and of Perfection
The Way of Salvation and of Perfection
The Way of the Cross,
Preparation for Death,
The Incarnation, Birth and Infancy of Jesus Christ
The Holy Eucharist
Victories of the Martyrs

Many of these are available online.

Posted in DEVOTIO, SAINT of the DAY

Saints’ Memorials, The Feast of the Chains of St Peter and the Portiuncula Indulgence – 1 August

St Alphonsus Maria de Liguori (Memorial) –

Portiuncula Indulgence: Between noon of 1 August and midnight of 2 August, or on the Sunday following. Fr Z’s Blog has a good explanation –

Feast of Saint Peter in Chains:  The feast was originally kept in Rome, Italy to commemorate the dedication of the Church of Saint Peter on the Esquiline Hill built by Eudoxia Licinia in 442 and rebuilt by Adrian I in the 8th century.   When the chains which Saint Peter had worn in prison and from which he was freed by angelic intervention, Acts 12:1-19, were later venerated there, the feast received its present name.   The date when these chains were brought from Jerusalem is disputed; some claim they were brought in 116 by travellers sent in search of them by Saint Balbina and her father Saint Quirinus, while others think Saint Eudoxia brought them in 439.   Pope Saint Leo the Great united them to the chains with which Saint Peter had been fettered in the Mamertine Prison, forming a chain about two yards long which is preserved in a bronze safe and guarded by a special confraternity.

Bl Aleksy Sobaszek
St Alexander of Perga
St Almedha
St Arcadius
St Attius of Perga
St Benado Vo Van Due
St Buono
St Brogan
St Charity
St Ðaminh Nguyen Van Hanh
St Ethelwold of Winchester
St Exuperius of Bayeux
St Faith
St Faustus
St Felix of Gerona
St Friard
Bl Gerhard Hirschfelder
St Hope
St Jonatus
St Justin of Paris
St Kenneth of Wales
St Leontius of Perga
Bl Maria Imelda of the Eucharistic Jesus
Bl Maria Stella of the Most Blessed Sacrament
St Maur
St Nemesius of Lisieux
Bl Orlando of Vallombrosa
St Peregrinus of Modena
St Peter Faber
St Rioch
Bl Rudolph
St Secundel
St Secundus of Palestrina
St Sophia
St Verus of Vienne


Saints Faith, Hope and Charity:  The daughters of Saint Sophia. While still children, they were tortured and martyred for their faith in the persecutions of Hadrian.   They were scourged, thrown into a fire and then beheaded.

Holy Maccabees: Jewish dynasty which began with the rebellion of Mathathias and his five sons against the Syrian king, Antiochus IV (168 BC) and ruled the fortunes of Israel until the advent of Herod the Great. Syrian attempts to force Greek paganism on the Jews, the profanation of the Temple at Jerusalem, and the massacre which followed, brought the nation to arms under Mathathias, a priest of the sons of Joarib. At the death of Mathathias, Judas Machabeus, his third son, drove the Syrians and Hellenists out of Jerusalem, rededicated the Temple, and began an offensive and defensive alliance with the Romans. Before the treaty was concluded, however, Judas, with 800 men, risked battle at Laisa with an overwhelming army of Syrians under Bacchides, and was slain. He was succeeded in command by his youngest brother, Jonathan (161 BC). Jonathan defeated Bacchides, revenged the death of his brother, and made peace with Alexander who had usurped the throne of Demetrius, the successor to Antiochus. A period of peace followed in which Jonathan ruled as high priest in Jerusalem, but Tryphon, who was plotting for the throne of Asia, treacherously captured him at ptolemais and later put him to death. The captaincy of the armies of Israel then fell to Simon, the second son of Mathathias. Under him the land of Juda flourished exceedingly. He obtained the complete independence of the country and a grateful people bestowed upon him the hereditary kingship of the nation. His rule marked five years of uninterrupted peace. He was treacherously slain by his son-in-law, Ptolemy, about the year 135 BC After Simon the race of the Machabees quickly degenerated. In 63 BC the Romans thought it necessary to interfere in the fratricidal war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II. With this interference and the advent of Herod the Great the scepter passed forever from the land of Juda. The story of the Machabees is written in the two books of the Old Testament which bear that name.

Martyrs of Nowogrodek – 11 beati: A group of eleven Holy Family of Nazareth nuns who were murdered by Nazis in exchange for the release of 120 condemned citizens of Nowogrodek, Belarus.
• Adela Mardosewicz
• Anna Kukolowicz
• Eleonora Aniela Józwik
• Eugenia Mackiewicz
• Helena Cierpka
• Jadwiga Karolina Zak
• Józefa Chrobot
• Julia Rapiej
• Leokadia Matuszewska
• Paulina Borowik
• Weronika Narmontowicz
They were murdered on 1 August 1943 by the Gestapo in Novogrudok, Hrodzyenskaya voblasts’, Belarus and
Beatified on 5 March 2000 by St Pope John Paul.

Martyrs of Philadelphia – 6 saints: A group of six Christians martyred. No information about them has survived but the names – Aquila, Cyril, Domitian, Menander, Peter and Rufus. They were martyred on an unknown date in Philadelphia (modern Alasehir, Turkey).

Martyred in the Spanish Civil War:
Bl Benito Iñiguez de Heredia Alzola
Bl Francesc de Paula Soteras Culla
Bl Joan Bonavida Dellá
Bl José de Miguel Arahal
Bl Justino Alarcón Vera
Sebastià Tarragó Cabré
Vicente Montserrat Millán
Nicholas de la Torre Merino